《Made from, made of, made with, made by》
（文╱Robert Tolmasoff）The expressions “made from”, “made of”, “made with” and “made by” are an excellent example of how a preposition that follows a word can significantly alter its proper usage. While each expression is essentially the same in meaning, they are all used in different situations.
First use “made from” to describe a situation when a material is used to make something, and that material has changed. This is especially true when talking about how something is manufactured.
The frame of the car is made from steel. (Manufacturing process)
Our paper products are made from recycled materials. (The recycled materials originally did not look like paper)
Gasoline is made from oil. (The oil has changed into gasoline through a process)
The expression “made of” is used when talking about the raw materials or base material or qualities. What is the difference between “made from” and “made of”? Typically when we use “made of” the original material is still recognizable or has not gone through significant changes.
The table is made of wood. (It is still wood. You can see it is still wood)
The house is made of bricks. (You can easily see the bricks)
The expression “made with” is almost exclusively used when talking about ingredients in a dish.
The chicken is made with garlic and rosemary.
The soup is made with chicken broth, vegetables, and salt.
When you use something for a purpose other than it was originally intended, we use the expression “made out of”.
The boat was made out of plastic bottles. (the original use for the plastic bottles was not for a boat)
They escaped the burning building on a rope made out of bed sheets. (The bed sheets were not originally intended to be a rope.)
When you want to describe how something is made, use the expression “made by [doing something].
Gasoline is made by refining oil.
Finally, the term “made by” should be used when talking about who made an object. While “made in” refers to the location where something was manufactured.
The computer was made by a well-known company.
The computer was made in Taiwan.
Robert Tolmasoff is a trainer, editor, and author based in Taipei. His clients include international companies as well as individuals looking to sharpen their communications skills. Robert’s last two books, 上班族完美英文e-mail輕鬆寫 and 1000 Essential Business English Terms, are available in books stores and from McGraw-Hill Taiwan. Have ideas for future columns or questions? Email Robert at firstname.lastname@example.org